Sunday, December 8, 2019

Effects of Altitude of Human Physiology Essay Example For Students

Effects of Altitude of Human Physiology Essay THE EFFECTS OF ALTITUDE ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY Changes in altitude have a profound effect on the human body. The bodyattempts to maintain a state of homeostasis or balance to ensure the optimaloperating environment for its complex chemical systems. Any change from thishomeostasis is a change away from the optimal operating environment. The bodyattempts to correct this imbalance. One such imbalance is the effect ofincreasing altitude on the body’s ability to provide adequate oxygen to beutilized in cellular respiration. With an increase in elevation, a typicaloccurrence when climbing mountains, the body is forced to respond in variousways to the changes in externalenvironment. Foremost of these changes is the diminished ability to obtainoxygen from the atmosphere. If the adaptive responses to this stressor areinadequate the performance of body systems may decline dramatically. Ifprolonged the results can be serious or even fatal. In looking at the effectof altitude on body functio ning we first must understand what occurs in theexternal environment at higher elevations and then observe the importantchanges that occur in the internal environment of the body in response. HIGH ALTITUDE In discussing altitude change and its effect on the body mountaineersgenerally define altitude according to the scale of high (8,000 12,000feet), very high (12,000 18,000 feet), and extremely high (18,000+ feet),(Hubble, 1995). A common misperception of the change in external environmentwith increased altitude is that there is decreased oxygen. This is notcorrect as the concentration of oxygen at sea level is about 21% and staysrelatively unchanged until over 50,000 feet (Johnson, 1988). What is really happening is that the atmospheric pressure is decreasing andsubsequently the amount of oxygen available in a single breath of air issignificantly less. At sea level the barometric pressure averages 760 mmHgwhile at 12,000 feet it is only 483 mmHg. This decrease in total atmosphericpressure means that there are 40% fewer oxygen molecules per breath at thisaltitude compared to sea level (Princeton, 1995). HUMAN RESPIRATORY SYSTEM The human respiratory system is responsible for bringing oxygen into thebody and transferring it to the cells where it can be utilized for cellularactivities. It also removes carbon dioxide from the body. The respiratorysystem draws air initially either through the mouth or nasal passages. Bothof these passages join behind the hard palate to form the pharynx. At thebase of the pharynx are two openings. One, the esophagus, leads to thedigestive system while the other, the glottis, leads to the lungs. Theepiglottis covers the glottis when swallowing so that food does not enter thelungs. When the epiglottis is not covering the opening to the lungs air maypass freely into and out of the trachea. The trachea sometimes called the â€Å"windpipe† branches into two bronchi whichin turn lead to a lung. Once in the lung the bronchi branch many times intosmaller bronchioles which eventually terminate in small sacs called alveoli. It is in the alveoli that the actual transfer of oxygen to the blood takesplace. The alveoli are shaped like inflated sacs and exchange gas through amembrane. The passage of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of theblood is dependent on three major factors: 1) the partial pressure of thegases, 2) the area of the pulmonary surface, and 3) the thickness of themembrane (Gerking, 1969). The membranes in the alveoli provide a largesurface area for the free exchange of gases. The typical thickness of thepulmonary membrane is less than the thickness of a red blood cell. Thepulmonary surface and the thickness of the alveolar membranes are notdirectly affected by a change in altitude. The partial pressure of oxygen,however, is directly related to altitude and affects gas transfer in thealveoli. GAS TRANSFER To understand gas transfer it is important to first understand somethingabout thebehavior of gases. Each gas in our atmosphere exerts its own pressure andacts independently of the others. Hence the term partial pressure refers tothe contribution of each gas to the entire pressure of the atmosphere. Theaverage pressure of the atmosphere at sea level is approximately 760 mmHg. This means that the pressure is great enough to support a column of mercury(Hg) 760 mm high. To figure the partial pressure of oxygen you start with thepercentage of oxygen present in the atmosphere which is about 20%. Thusoxygen will constitute 20% of the total atmospheric pressure at any givenlevel. At sea level the total atmospheric pressure is 760 mmHg so the partialpressure of O2 would be approximately 152 mmHg. 760 mmHg x 0.20 = 152 mmHgA similar computation can be made for CO2 if we know that the concentrationis approximately 4%. The partial pressure of CO2 would then be about 0.304mmHg at sea level. Gas transfer at the alveoli follows the rule of simple diffusion. Diffusionis movement of molecules along a concentration gradient from an area of highconcentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion is the result ofcollisions between molecules. In areas of higher concentration there are morecollisions. The net effect of this greater number of collisions is a movementtoward an area of lower concentration. In Table 1 it is apparent that theconcentration gradient favors the diffusion of oxygen into and carbon dioxideout of the blood (Gerking, 1969). Table 2 shows the decrease in partialpressure of oxygen at increasing altitudes (Guyton, 1979). Table 1ATMOSPHERIC AIRALVEOLUSVENOUS BLOODOXYGEN152 mmHg (20%)104 mmHg (13.6%) 40 mmHgCARBON DIOXIDE 0.304 mmHg (0.04%)40 mmHg (5.3%) 45 mmHgTable 2ALTITUDE (ft.) BAROMETRIC PRESSURE (mmHg)Po2 IN AIR (mmHg)Po2 IN ALVEOLI(mmHg) ARTERIAL OXYGEN SATURATION (%)0 760159*104 9710,000523 110 67 9020,000349 73 40 7030,000226 47 21 2040,000141 29 8550,00087 18 11 *this value differs from table 1 because the author used the value for theconcentration of O2 as 21%. The author of table 1 choose to use the value as 20%. CELLULAR RESPIRATION In a normal, non-stressed state, the respiratory system transports oxygenfrom the lungs to the cells of the body where it is used in the process ofcellular respiration. Under normal conditions this transport of oxygen issufficient for the needs of cellular respiration. Cellular respirationconverts the energy in chemical bonds into energy that can be used to powerbody processes. Glucose is the molecule most often used to fuel this processalthough the body is capable of using other organic molecules for energy. The transfer of oxygen to the body tissues is often called internalrespiration (Grollman, 1978). The process of cellular respiration is acomplex series of chemical steps that ultimately allow for the breakdown ofglucose into usable energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Thethree main steps in the process are: 1) glycolysis, 2) Krebs cycle, and 3)electron transport system. Oxygen is required for these processes to functionat an efficient level. Without the presence of oxygen the pathway for energyproduction must proceed anaerobically. Anaerobic respiration sometimes calledlactic acid fermentation produces significantly less ATP (2 instead of 36/38)and due to this great inefficiency will quickly exhaust the available supplyof glucose. Thus the anaerobic pathway is not a permanent solution for theprovision of energy to the body in the absence of sufficient oxygen. The supply of oxygen to the tissues is dependent on: 1) the efficiency withwhich blood is oxygenated in the lungs, 2) the efficiency of the blood indelivering oxygen to the tissues, 3) the efficiency of the respiratoryenzymes within the cells to transfer hydrogen to molecular oxygen (Grollman,1978). A deficiency in any of these areas can result in the body cells nothaving an adequate supply of oxygen. It is this inadequate supply of oxygenthat results in difficulties for the body at higher elevations. The Art Institute Culinary Arts Essay ExampleSide effects subside when the drug is stopped. Diamox is a sulfonamide drug,so people who are allergic to sulfa drugs such as penicillin should not takeDiamox. Diamox has also been known to cause severe allergic reactions topeople with no previous history of Diamox or sulfaallergies. A trial course of the drug is usually conducted before going to aremote location where a severe allergic reaction could prove difficult totreat. Some recent data suggests that the medication Dexamethasone may havesome effect in reducing the risk of mountain sickness when used incombination with Diamox (University of Iowa, 1995). Moderate AMS requires advanced medications or immediate descent to reversethe problem. Descending even a few hundred feet may help and definiteimprovement will be seen in descents of 1,000-2,000 feet. Twenty-four hoursat the lower altitude will result in significant improvements. The personshould remain at lower altitude until symptoms have subsided (up to 3 days). At this point, the person has become acclimatized to that altitude and canbegin ascending again. Severe AMS requires immediate descent to loweraltitudes (2,000 4,000 feet). Supplemental oxygen may be helpful inreducing the effects of altitude sicknesses but does not overcome all thedifficulties that may result from the lowered barometric pressure. GAMOW BAG This invention has revolutionized field treatment of high altitudeillnesses. The Gamow bag is basically a portable sealed chamber with a pump. The principle of operation is identical to the hyperbaric chambers used indeep sea diving. The person is placed inside the bag and it is inflated. Pumping the bag full of air effectively increases the concentration of oxygenmolecules and therefore simulates a descent to lower altitude. In as littleas 10 minutes the bag creates an atmosphere that corresponds to that at 3,000 5,000 feet lower. After 1-2 hours in the bag, theperson’s body chemistry will have reset to the lower altitude. This lasts forup to 12 hours outside of the bag which should be enough time to travel to alower altitude and allow for further acclimatization. The bag and pump weighabout 14 pounds and are now carried on most major high altitude expeditions. The gamow bag is particularly important where the possibility of immediatedescent is not feasible. OTHER ALTITUDE-INDUCED ILLNESS There are two other severe forms of altitude illness. Both of these happenlessfrequently, especially to those who are properly acclimatized. When they dooccur, it is usually the result of an increase in elevation that is too rapidfor the body to adjust properly. For reasons not entirely understood, thelack of oxygen and reduced pressure often results in leakage of fluid throughthe capillary walls into either the lungs or the brain. Continuing to higheraltitudes without proper acclimatization can lead to potentially serious,even life-threatening illnesses. HIGH ALTITUDE PULMONARY EDEMA (HAPE) High altitude pulmonary edema results from fluid buildup in the lungs. Thefluid in the lungs interferes with effective oxygen exchange. As thecondition becomes more severe, the level of oxygen in the bloodstreamdecreases, and this can lead to cyanosis, impaired cerebral function, anddeath. Symptoms include shortness of breath even at rest, tightness in thechest,marked fatigue, a feeling of impending suffocation at night, weakness, and apersistent productive cough bringing up white, watery, or frothy fluid(University of Iowa, 1995.). Confusion, and irrational behavior are signsthat insufficient oxygen is reaching the brain. One of the methods fortesting for HAPE is to check recovery time after exertion. Recovery timerefers to the time after exertion that it takes for heart rate andrespiration to return to near normal. An increase in this time may mean fluidis building up in the lungs. If a case of HAPE is suspected an immediatedescent is a necessar y life-saving measure (2,000 4,000 feet). Anyonesufferingfrom HAPE must be evacuated to a medical facility for proper follow-uptreatment. Early data suggests that nifedipine may have a protective effectagainst high altitude pulmonary edema (University of Iowa, 1995). HIGH ALTITUDE CEREBRAL EDEMA (HACE) High altitude cerebral edema results from the swelling of brain tissue fromfluid leakage. Symptoms can include headache, loss of coordination (ataxia),weakness, and decreasing levels of consciousness including, disorientation,loss of memory, hallucinations, psychotic behavior, and coma. It generallyoccurs after a week or more at high altitude. Severe instances can lead todeath if not treated quickly. Immediate descent is a necessary life-savingmeasure (2,000 4,000 feet). Anyone suffering from HACE must be evacuatedto a medical facility for proper follow-uptreatment. CONCLUSION The importance of oxygen to the functioning of the human body is critical. Thus the effect of decreased partial pressure of oxygen at higher altitudescan be pronounced. Each individual adapts at a different speed to exposure toaltitude and it is hard to know who may be affected by altitude sickness. There are no specific factors such as age, sex, or physical condition thatcorrelate with susceptibility to altitude sickness. Most people can go up to8,000 feet with minimal effect. Acclimatization is often accompanied by fluidloss, so the ingestion of large amounts of fluid to remain properly hydratedis important (at least 3-4 quarts per day). Urine output should be copiousand clear. From the available studies on the effect of altitude on the human body itwould appear apparent that it is important to recognize symptoms early andtake corrective measures. Light activity during the day is better thansleeping because respiration decreases during sleep, exacerbating thesymptoms. The avoidance of tobacco, alcohol, and other depressant drugsincluding, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills is important. These depressants further decrease the respiratory drive during sleepresulting in a worsening of the symptoms. A high carbohydrate diet (more than70% of your calories from carbohydrates) while at altitude alsoappears to facilitate recovery. A little planning and awareness can greatly decrease the chances of altitudesickness. Recognizing early symptoms can result in the avoidance of moreserious consequences of altitude sickness. The human body is a complexbiochemical organism that requires an adequate supply of oxygen to function. The ability of this organism to adjust to a wide range of conditions is atestament to its survivability. The decreased partial pressure of oxygen withincreasingaltitude is one of these adaptations. Sources:Electric Differential Multimedia Lab, Travel Precautions and Advice,University of Iowa Medical College, 1995. Gerking, Shelby D., Biological Systems, W.B. Saunders Company, 1969. Grolier Electronic Publishing, The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, 1993. Grollman, Sigmund, The Human Body: Its Structure and Physiology, MacmillianPublishing Company, 1978. Guyton, Arthur C., Physiology of the Human Body, 5th Edition, SaundersCollege Publishing, 1979. Hackett, P., Mountain Sickness, The Mountaineers, Seattle, 1980. Hubble, Frank, High Altitude Illness, Wilderness Medicine Newsletter,March/April 1995. Hubble, Frank, The Use of Diamox in the Prevention of Acute MountainSickness, Wilderness Medicine Newsletter, March/April 1995. Isaac, J. and Goth, P., The Outward Bound Wilderness First Aid Handbook,Lyons Burford, New 1991. Johnson, T., and Rock, P., Acute Mountain Sickness, New England Journal ofMedicine, 1988:319:841-5Langley, Telford, and Christensen, Dynamic Anatomy and Physiology,McGraw-Hill, 1980. Princeton University, Outdoor Action Program, 1995. Starr, Cecie, and Taggart, Ralph, Biology: The Unity and Diversity of Life,Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1992. Tortora, Gerard J., and Grabowski, Sandra, Principles of Anatomy andPhysiology, Seventh Edition, Harper Collins College Publishers, 1993. Wilkerson., J., Editor, Medicine for Mountaineering, Fourth Edition, TheMountaineers, Seattle, 1992.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Nelson Mandela Essays (3754 words) - Xhosa People, Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela Excuse me sir, may I see your pass? These words mean very little to most Americans; however these words struck fear in the hearts of black South Africans during the times of apartheid. While apartheid was being practiced, blacks were restricted in the jobs they could hold, facilities they could use, as well as the places they could be, and all blacks had to carry passes for identification purposes. If the passes were not in order, the carrier was subject to arrest. Through these terrifying times, one man rose above all the rest in the effort to combat this terrible practice of apartheid. This man was Nelson Mandela; a man who was so dedicated to the overthrow of apartheid that he was willing to spend twenty-seven years of his live in prison for the cause. Mandela's rise to the South African presidency, after his release is well documented, but in order to truly understand Mandela, one must examine his life before his prison term, and rise to the presidency. When analyzing Mandela's l ife from this point of view, several questions come to the forefront. First of all, what was the extent of the apartheid laws which Mandela and the people of South Africa were facing? Secondly, what tactics did Mandela use to combat this practice of apartheid? Thirdly, what factors played a motivating force in the life of Mandela? And finally, what impact does the life of Nelson Mandela have on the rest of the world? After carefully answering each of these questions, one can easily see that Nelson Mandela was a man shaped by apartheid into a staunch nationalist that served as an example for his people and the world. In understanding Mandela as a nationalist, one must first have an idea of the brutal laws which he faced and dedicated his life to overthrowing. Apartheid was the policy being used to repress the blacks at the time of Mandela. Encyclopedia of Britannica describes apartheid as, policy that governed relations between South Africa's white minority and nonwhite majority and sanctioned racial segregation and political and economic discrimination against nonwhites (Britannica web). It is important to note that racial discrimination existed in South Africa since Europeans first came there, however the policy of apartheid was not instituted until after the victory of the National Party in the election of 1948 (Britannica web). Once the National Party gained power, they began their movement towards apartheid in 1950 with the Population Registration Act (Britannica web). With the passing of the act, all South Africans were forced to classify themselves into one of three racial groups: Bantu (b lack South Africans), Coloured (of mixed dissent), and white (Britannica web). A fourth group to include Asian inhabitants was a later addition to the act (Britannica web). This demeaning Population Registration Act was the foundation for all of the brutal apartheid laws that were yet to come from the National Party. Once the National Party had all South Africans placed into categories based on their race, they preceded to enact one policy that was particularly devastating to blacks. The name of this policy was the Group Areas Act of 1950. Before discussing the impact of this act, it is important to understand the extent of the majority the blacks had over the whites. Black residents numbered 31.5 million people, Colorued were 3.3 million, Asian 1.2 million, and the whites had only 5.4 million inhabitants (Geocities web). Now the purpose of the Group Areas Act was to prevent members of certain races from having land, houses, or businesses in particular areas of the country (Britannica web). As a result of this act, the small minority of white citizens was allotted over 80% of South Africa's land (Britannica web). By analyzing the numbers presented, it is not difficult to see how this act had a devastating effect on black South Africans. Blacks represent approximately 75% of the population, yet ar e only able to use less than 20% of the land. As one could imagine, it would be hard for anyone to prosper under those conditions. Besides the Population Registration Act, and the Group Areas Act many other acts were passed to ensure the segregation between blacks and whites. Two acts in

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Should homosexuals be allowed in the millitary Essays

Should homosexuals be allowed in the millitary Essays Should homosexuals be allowed in the millitary Essay Should homosexuals be allowed in the millitary Essay Should Homosexuals Be Allowed In The Military? In our history we fought for the rights of all people. We abolished the N word because of discrimination and today blacks are accepted as regular people common to society. Women Fought for their rights such as voting and being able to work, so why should gays be any different? Should homosexuals be allowed in the military? Society blew this topic out of proportion. Homosexual people in the military has been a controversial topic for many years. Recently Obama lifted the Dont Ask Dont Tell policy that Clinton made. The Lifting of the ban was the right thing to do despite protest. Its time for the Army to lift its ban on homosexuals completely. The Dont Ask Dont Tell policy Is too vague. Its easy to say that the Increase In discharges has resulted from voluntary declarations of sexual preference. -Brian Hughes Thornton 2 President Clinton signed the Dont Ask Dont Tell policy in 1993. This policy meant that gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgender were banned from Irving in the military and it prevented military officials from asking questions or pursuing investigations of people that they think are homosexuals. But if you were showing or saying that you were a homosexual you were automatically discharged. President Barack Obama signed the repeal of Dont Ask Dont Tell. Obama also stated As of today patriotic Americans in uniform will no longer have to lie about who they are in order to serve the country they love. As of today our armed forces will no longer lose the extraordinary skills and combat experience of so many gay and Sebastian service members. Nations Such As Israel, Italy, and France etc. Cross the world allow gays to Join In militarys so why should America be any deferent. Every male and female should be able to fight for their country whether they like the same sex or not. There are many people In the military today who are rapist. Pedophilia, thieves etc. They just havent been convicted for it, and those things are ten times worst then being gay. So sexual orientation should not matter or even come into play while serving your country. Being a homosexual should not keep you ou t of the litany but for peace sake it should remain silent. People should not have to hide who they are and you should embrace who you are as a person, but at the same time you are not In the military for meeting your match. You are there to stay focused on your job. So you shouldnt flaunt it. Thornton 3 Work Cited Hughes, Brian. Should Homosexuals Serve Openly in the Military? Speak Out. 26 April 2000. ;https://www. Speakers. Com/activism/issue_briefs/Bibb-1 . HTML Should Gays Be Allowed to Serve In the Military Us military. 9 February 2012. https://

Friday, November 22, 2019

Scaffolding Instruction Strategies

Scaffolding Instruction Strategies Scaffolding describes how instruction is planned and delivered to students receiving special education services. Scaffolding instruction refers to specialized teaching strategies geared toward supporting learning when students are first introduced to a new subject. Scaffolding gives students a context, motivation, or foundation from which to understand the new information that will be introduced during the coming lesson. Scaffolding techniques should be considered fundamental to good, solid teaching for all students, not just those with learning disabilities or second language learners. In order for learning to progress, scaffolds should be gradually removed as instruction continues so that students will eventually be able to demonstrate comprehension independently. Scaffolding Strategies Scaffolding instruction includes a wide variety of strategies, including: Activating prior knowledge. This strategy reminds of what they have already learned, often through brief reviews. This helps reduce students anxiety as they move on to new subjects.Offering a motivational context to pique student interest or curiosity in the subject at handBreaking a complex task into easier, more doable steps to facilitate student achievementShowing students an example of the desired outcome before they complete the taskModeling the thought process for students through think aloud talkOffering hints or partial solutions to problemsUsing verbal cues to prompt student answersTeaching students chants or mnemonic devices to ease memorization of key facts or proceduresFacilitating student engagement and participationDisplaying a historical timeline to offer a context for learningUsing graphic organizers (visual aids) to offer a visual framework for assimilating new informationTeaching key vocabulary terms before readingGuiding the students in making predictions for what they expect will occur in a story, experiment, or other course of action Asking questions while reading to encourage deeper investigation of conceptsSuggesting possible strategies for the students to use during independent practiceModeling an activity for the students before they are asked to complete the same or similar activityAsking students to contribute their own experiences that relate to the subject at hand Implementing Scaffolding Strategies A deeper look shows how you can implement a few of the strategies mentioned above into your classroom. Prior knowledge: A great scaffolding technique is to ask students to share their own personal experiences or knowledge about the topic that they are learning about. Have them try and relate the topic in one way or another to their own lives. Visual aids: Visual aids like graphic organizers, charts and photographs all serve as wonderful scaffolding tools because they visually represent what the students are learning about. They are essentially the training wheels students use until they can really get a firm grasp on the information. Pre Teach vocabulary: It is essential to preteach any new vocabulary before moving on to a new subject. Simply introduce the new words through a photo or picture and put each word into context and relate it to something that students already know. Doing so will keep students interested and ready to tackle the next learning objective. Edited By: Janelle Cox

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Transportation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Transportation - Essay Example Transport through water came after. As time progressed, there was invention of other forms of transport including motor vehicles and railways. Transport by air is the most current. From the evolution of transportation, it is evident that the greatest motivation was volume and speed. The newer forms of transportation led to more goods to be carried and increase in the speed. Transportation is through the land, air, water and outer-space. For all the modes of transportation, energy is needed. In traditional forms of transportation, human and animal, the energy was provided by humans and animals. In traditional water transportation, the energy needed was provided by wind [1]. The major contribution of energy for the modern mode of transportation is petroleum products. The source of fuel is very important to different modes of transport. The fuel used differs from one mode to another. Innovation of new modes of transportation led to innovations on the form of fuels used. Today, innovations that are made improve the current mode of transport and come up with other better modes. The greatest motivation to innovations is to increase speed and safety of transport. In addition, there is need for exploring other parts of space. Land transportation is the oldest mode of transport. This mode includes all forms of transports that are made though the land. ... Use of ethanol and bio diesel is already on the way but there is still more hope for automobiles. The most promising source of fuel in the future is hydrogen. Auto mobile makers are already making progress in making hydrogen fuel cell. Unlike the other types of fuel, hydrogen is renewable. Thus, when this technology is adopted, there will be no fear of losing fuel [1]. This technology on fuel makes the use of a reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. The product of the reaction is electricity that will be used to drive the vehicles. Thus, the future vehicle will be driven by electricity and thus, it will be moving at a very high speed. The speed at which the vehicles will be moving at can only be compared to the speed at which the current electric trains move at. At this speed, there will be need to change infrastructures and transport rules to accommodate the new technology. The greatest motivation to innovations is the desire to protect the environment. Fuels from fossil products are accused of releasing a lot of green house gases in the environment. Thus, there has been a desire to come up with other alternative fuels that would reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the environment. Enhanced and synthetic gasoline Gasoline mixed with other elements is a promising alternative fuel in the future. Gasoline that does not come from petroleum products will also be produced and used as fuel. Engines that are able to use gasoline as a form of fuel have been made and implemented. The green house gases produced by gasoline are about half of the gases released by liquid petroleum products. Despite this, the desire to reduce the amount of green house gases continues [1]. The crude oil reservoirs are decreasing with the fuel. With over reliance on crude oil as

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

I'll upload them later Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

I'll upload them later - Essay Example This paper will discuss the positives and negatives of internet education which eventually affect learning. The primary reason why people opt for internet education is convenience. Students can manage their schedules at their most convenient time which allows them to learn at the pace they want. In addition, they can study anytime and anywhere they want (Obringer). This also enables learners to choose their most comfortable place of learning such as their home. Consequently, â€Å"time efficiency is another strength brought by the online learning format† ( Students save time and energy for travel and gas. For instance, when a student goes home from work and needs to do his homework, he does not have to travel to school in order to get his lessons and assignments. Instead, he can simply look for those in his school’s database and in just a few moments, be able to acquire the necessary information thus, saving time, gas and money for his travel if he studies at a university. Another positive result of internet education is synergy. There is an interaction among the group that is simply different in distance learning. It is a combination of minds from entirely different familial backgrounds and perhaps even various cultural backgrounds who could make the learning more interesting. Although having this kind of conglomeration of students in traditional classrooms may be easy nowadays, the interaction in distance learning could perhaps be better because the students are all encouraged to participate. Oftentimes, those who are enrolling in such programs are those who want to study but do not have enough time to go to traditional schools. Therefore, their desire to study and level of active participation is quite different. In relation to synergy, high quality dialog also benefits students. They can learn from other students’ ideas about certain subject matters and they can also react to those ideas. Their analytical skills are honed

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Hart and Positivism Essay Example for Free

Hart and Positivism Essay According to Hart law consists of primary and secondary rules. The primary rules are the rules that are â€Å"rules of obligation.† (Hart. Pg 204) This means that primary rules are rules that obligate a person to do something or to not do something. For example, the first Amendment, â€Å"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceable to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. † ( The first Amendment is an example of a primary rule because it directly affects the people of the United States of America by allowing them to have the freedom of religion, press and expression. This is an example of obligating a person not to do something, which means that the person is not obligated to have any other religion other than their own, for example. The second part of law is the secondary rules. Secondary rules only affect primary rules. This means that a secondary rule can help clarify, alter, eliminate, bring into effect, verify or determine whether a primary rule has been broken. For example the only reason we have the first amendment of the United States Constitution is because of Article 5 of the U.S. Constitution which states, The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate. ( Article 5 of the constitution is a perfect example of a secondary rule (in this case a â€Å"rule of change†) because it allows one to see exactly how a secondary rule affects a primary rule. With Article 5 of the Constitution, the United States is capable of applying amendments to the constitution (or otherwise known â€Å"the Law of the Land†) of the United States. Article 5 of the constitution is an example of a secondary rule classified as a â€Å"rule of change† as stated by Hart. A â€Å"rule of change† allows an office or officials to be able to implement new primary rules so as to be able to adapt to the changing of times and the constant creation of new situations. The â€Å"rule of change† simply allows the system to be able to adapt to their society and not allow the primary rules to go static. To become a law there are two parts that need to happen, according to Hart. First there needs to be the initiation of a primary rule statute by a delegated official or office in power. Once the primary rule is made a secondary rule, the rule of recognition, is enacted. The rule of recognition simply allows private persons and officials the ability to be able to identify the primary rules of obligation. This secondary rule conclusively identifies the primary rules of obligation so as not to be confused as to what are the obligations the primary rule bestows. To have primary rules of obligation and secondary rules of recognition, there needs to be an office or official to be able to adjudicate these rules. To be able to adjudicate these rules there would need to be an additional secondary rule of adjudication. This would allow a judge to be able to determine whether or not the primary rule has been broken. Within the rule of adjudication there would also be rules on the roles of the judge as well as identifying who are to be the judges. With the rule of adjudication there is no question of whether or not a law has been broken and this solidifies the primary rule of obligation. With the ideas of Hart this shows that laws and morality can be separable, but they are not necessarily separated. It is possible to have a separation between low and morality by having some sort of primary rule that would state â€Å"no one rule will introduce the morals or characters of others into the legal system.† It is also possible though for an official delegate to implement a primary rule into the legal system and have it backed by a secondary rule of recognition. Having the secondary rule of recognition would potentially make the morality based primary law a valid legal law. In Hart’s idea morality and law are â€Å"separable†, in the meaning that they are capable of being separated, but they are in no way impossible to be able to be combined in law. Without there being a way to identify morality and making it a subordinate to statute, there can’t be a definite separation with Harts theory. Work Cited 1. Reading in the Philosophy of Law (pg 202-207) 2. (1st Amendment, Article 5 of the Constitution)